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Marvin Minsky: seeking the mystery of "intelligence" and the legendary life of the father of artificial intelligence Frame theory and other popular terms are closely linked. He is one of the pioneers in defining and developing "artificial intelligence", the first Turing Award winner in the field of artificial intelligence, and is honored as the "father of artificial intelligence". This article tells you the legend of Marvin Minsky in the field of computer science

In 1927, Marvin Minsky was born in a Jewish family in New York. He was educated in a private school since childhood. After graduating from high school, he followed the Jewish tradition and enlisted in the army. At the end of World War II, he experienced two years of naval career. After he retired from the army, he majored in mathematics at Harvard University and took courses in electrical engineering, genetics, psychology and other disciplines. His wide range of disciplines laid a foundation for him to challenge the research of artificial intelligence

during his study at Harvard, Marvin Minsky became very interested in the origin of human mind and the mystery of cognitive things, and decided to explore the truth. So he plunged into the research of machine intelligence and built the world's first neural network computer SNARC (stochastic neural analysis reinforcement calculator) with his classmate Dean Edmonds in the last year of his undergraduate course. While pursuing his Ph.D. in mathematics at Princeton University, he continued to follow his interests and completed a doctoral thesis that seemed particularly unorthodox to the then review committee, such as "neural network and brain model problems" on increasing injection temperature and mold temperature and decreasing firing rate. In an interview with the New York Times, he talked about this choice: "the problem of intelligence seems to be bottomless. I think this is an area worthy of my life."

When Dr. Marvin Minsky graduated, it was the rise of cybernetics that he began to devote himself to the research of computer simulation of human psychology and thinking. At that time, Turing, the father of computer science, also published an influential article "computer and intelligence", which put forward the concepts of machine learning, Turing testing, genetic algorithm and so on, which coincided with Marvin Minsky's idea

"imparting" intelligence to machines

marvin Minsky always adheres to a belief that the essence of intelligence is a managed interaction between many agents with different abilities. Therefore, intelligence is not unique to human beings. Human thinking processes can also be simulated by machines to make machines have intelligence

based on this belief, Marvin Minsky, John McCarthy, who was teaching at Dartmouth College at that time, and Claude Shannon, the father of information theory, and other scholars jointly contributed to a famous conference in 1956 - Dartmouth summer artificial intelligence research conference. In this brainstorming session, the concept of "artificial intelligence" was put forward for the first time, and artificial intelligence was officially regarded as an independent research field

Dartmouth this summer gathered many future Turing prize winners. In the following decades, these heavyweights and their students from MIT, Stanford University, Carnegie Mellon University and other universities made great achievements in the fields of artificial intelligence and computer science

the Dartmouth conference reunited 50 years later. 2006

from the left: trenchard more, J. McCarthy, Marvin Minsky, Oliver Selfridge, ray solomonoff

from the 1950s to 1960s, Marvin Minsky led his students to rapidly expand their territory in the newly reclaimed knowledge field of artificial intelligence. "We used to have an important new discovery every twoorthree days and took it for granted," Minsky said. In 1960, Minsky put forward a symbol manipulation composed of heuristic search, pattern recognition, learning, planning and induction in his paper "steps t but a few years later oward artificial intelligence", which set off a revolution in artificial intelligence. Since then, these themes have become the core of people's exploration of artificial intelligence

in the early 1960s, Marvin Minsky and like-minded John McCarthy met again at MIT to jointly create the world's first artificial intelligence laboratory MIT AI lab. In this laboratory, Marvin Minsky not only devotes himself to "imparting" human perception and intelligence to machines, but also seeks the combination of artificial intelligence technology and practical robots. He invented some of the earliest optical scanners in the world, and a 14 degree free manipulator with scanner and tactile sensor. He also developed the world's first robot C that can simulate human activities. These developments have had a far-reaching impact on modern robotics and have brought robotics to a new level

marvin Minsky and manipulator

the manipulator builds blocks like a human hand

in addition to many leading research results, MIT AI Lab's initiative on sharing electronic information has also promoted the formation of an important culture in the computer field, laying a foundation for open source software and ARPA, the predecessor of interconnection

minsky is also interested in computer graphics research. In 1963, he invented the first head mounted graphic display, which continues to be applied in today's head mounted virtual reality display. Marvin Minsky was the first to put forward the concept of "telepresence" at that time. Through micro cameras, motion sensors and other devices, human beings "experience without real intervention" and become the pioneer of virtual reality

In the late 1960s, Marvin Minsky began to study perceptrons that can capture some of the neurobehavioral characteristics, raising the artificial intelligence research inspired by neural activities to a new level. After more than 20 years of silence, the neural network returned to people's vision and set off a revolution in the field of artificial intelligence again

In 1969, Marvin Minsky won the Turing prize for his core role in creating, shaping and promoting artificial intelligence. In 2011, he was selected into the IEEE AI Hall of fame for his significant contributions to artificial intelligence and intelligent systems

crossover stars with wide interests

the extremely wide interdisciplinary background makes Marvin Minsky's scientific research achievements span many fields. In addition to artificial intelligence, he also made contributions to microscope technology. In 1956, he invented and made the first confocal scanning microscope. This optical instrument has excellent resolution and image quality. Later, it was widely used in the fields of biological science and material science

1975, Marvin Minsky first put forward the important frame theory, which expressed knowledge completely in the form of frame system. Frame theory combines psychology and sociology, and provides a new way to describe human cognitive structure. It not only has a far-reaching impact on the development of artificial intelligence systems, but also has been introduced into many subject fields such as mass communication research, and has become an important theoretical basis

as a prestigious Honorary Professor of MIT, Marvin Minsky has also published a number of pioneering works, including semantic information processing, the society of mind and the emotion machine

Minsky not only has rich experience in many scientific fields, but also has a lot of research on music. In his life outside of academic research, he is an impromptu piano player who has made great achievements and enjoys expressing his philosophy with music

interestingly, Marvin Minsky also participated in the production of the 1968 epic science fiction masterpiece 2001: a Space Odyssey as a consultant. Kubrick, the director, personally came to the house to consult the technical details of the film, such as how to design the appearance of the famous AI villain "Hal 9000" computer in the film. At Minsky's suggestion, the "future computer" originally wrapped with colorful labels became a machine composed of countless small boxes in the film

2001 Space Odyssey Hal 9000 host internal

endless scientific search

"I don't think we can understand what we can't understand without introducing the earliest foreign technologies or relatively new theories into China. The difference lies in time, difficulty and priority." In an interview in his later years, Marvin Minsky recalled the golden age of artificial intelligence in the 1950s and 1960s when "new breakthroughs were made every week", and still showed his infinite longing

marvin Minsky devoted his whole life to exploring the boundaries of artificial intelligence, and almost witnessed all the ups and downs after the rise of artificial intelligence. He himself is also a trendsetter in this storm and has a far-reaching impact on the development of artificial intelligence

marvin Minsky always believed that computers could enhance human ability to the greatest extent in history, which was also his initial belief and purpose to devote his life to artificial intelligence. He expects robots better than humans to serve as engineers, mathematicians and physicists to better understand the nature of the economy and solve the problems we are facing, such as population aging, poverty and education. As the farsighted father of artificial intelligence said, "we must plan for our own future."


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(this article is reproduced from Microsoft Research AI headline, id: msrasia)


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